FORM IS EMPTINESS - EMPTINESS IS FORM
~ The Heart Sutra ~
Thomas Paul Seifert
(Karma Rinchen Dawa)
IN MEMORY OF ALBERT EINSTEIN
In one of its major statements expressed in the equation E = mc2 Albert Einstein’s Theory of Relativity affirms that all matter is energy. This is easily said, and even a parrot can say it blindfolded. Every jerk thinks he knows what energy is, even though mostly in error. What is the substance that everything is made of including you and me? What am I, and what are you? We must heed ourselves for substituting the historically ill-perceived thing we call matter with another ill-perceived thing we call energy. Therefore, in the same way as we have to ask “What is matter?” and “What is substance?” we likewise must ask “What is energy?”
Energy is not a substance, not a fluid, gas, or plasma, as one might want to imagine. It is not some fluorescent ‘power juice’ flowing through the arteries of the universe, ready to be filled into blue bottles for our consumption. Energy is not even ether that might or might not permeate the universe. Energy is a measure for the ‘velocity of change’. Ultimately energy is a number indicating ‘how much change per unit of time” there is in a phenomenon. The universal relationship E = hf - called Planck’s Law - can be applied to all fundamental processes in nature. Aside from a constant gauge factor h in this equation, there is only one variable f: frequency. Frequency is a number that says “so many times per unit of time there is a change”. Therefore energy is an abstract idea and not a tangible thing. We don’t even need the concept energy for describing the laws of nature. We could just use ‘frequency’ instead, and then we could say “matter is frequency”, or “matter is vibration” – the more vibration, the more matter there is. Where there is no vibration, there can be no matter. Without change there is no substance, and it could be said that substance itself is change. That may sound strange to our ears, but it is describing things more accurately than saying “all matter is energy”. Thus the fundamental law describing all phenomena in the universe is
f = m c2 / h
After a possible renormalization of our measurement units with a constant t (tao) = c2 / h we find an even simpler equation. Yet, it is the most profound equation we have ever found for describing all fundamental processes of our physical reality:
f = m
matter is vibration - vibration is matter
As you realize, there is no need for the term E (energy) in this equation, and not even c, the vacuum speed of light. We could as well do without the concept energy. At best energy can be regarded an intermediate analytical expression, and c as a ratio that defines a fundamental relationship between time and space for us, because frequency - and thus time - translates into space via c=lf, where l is the measure of spatial confinement for exactly one cycle of change called a wave length. Thus the abstract idea ‘energy’ needs a process of change to become useful. When we speak of energy we speak of the “energy of change” – meaning the velocity of change. Since all changes in nature are manifest through some process acting via physical manifestations, such as material objects or photons, the question is then what the universal carrier substance for all possible changes in physical space is. After the search for the ether has been unsuccessful, there was a time that scientists generally assumed that there is no need for such a carrier substance, but even Einstein in later years amended his earlier statements about this, and held that without such a carrier medium the laws of physics cannot be described accurately. Although differing from earlier concepts of the ether, the Crystal Theory of Space-Time is an attempt to describe this omnipresent substratum of change.
In this document I will introduce you to a physical theory proposing that the world we perceive, with all its material objects and life forms - atoms, molecules, living cells, plants, animals, human beings, the earth and its moon, the solar system, our galaxy, and other star systems - are manifestations of a super-large crystal. This crystal is not a dead aggregate of substances such as a salt crystal. It is endowed with intelligence, self-consciousness, and the seed of omniscience, and thus makes conscious life a possibility in our universe. The Crystal Theory of Space-Time suggests that you and everyone else lives inside a solid crystal which we cannot perceive because we are essentially indistinguishable from the crystal itself. This document attempts to explain the basic ideas of this theory as short as possible. Without stealing the reader’s time with too much philosophical speculation, religious fantasies, and intellectual acrobatics, unlike many other theories on the subject, the crystal theory will also provide technically sound information of practical use. This information will enable a technically and practically minded person to see for him/herself what the theory is worth, by turning it into practical application and experimental proof. May the reader do the speculative thinking to his/her own liking. Those knowledgeable in hermetic sciences will undoubtedly realize that by laying out the crystal theory I am pushing the boundaries of human knowledge vehemently beyond of that which is hitherto believed as unknowable, and that is spirit. The hermetic principle of mentalism states that The All is of a mental nature, that the universe is a manifestation of one infinite living mind or consciousness that has been endowed with many names in the history of mankind such as Brahma, God, Yahweh, Ishvara, Allah, Aumakua, and so on. Whether we give this universal consciousness a deified conceptual form or not, according to hermetic principles, spirit is considered ultimately unknowable and indefinable, and similar propositions are held by other schools concerning their respective representations of the omnipresent, omnipotent, and omniscient substratum. With the crystal theory therefore I took one step further to unveil this ultimate mystery of our existence. I am knocking on heaven’s doors.
I wish I knew what God’s thoughts are – the rest are details.
~ Albert Einstein ~
The ancient legend
of Atlantis tells of a source of energy called crystal energy which this perished civilization had harnessed for
maintaining its high standards of culture and technology. Atlantis is believed to
have been a far advanced civilization than any of our contemporary societies.
Its location is unknown, but believed to be in areas now covered by the
Rendering of the human light body by the artist Alex Grey.
This implication of the theory is so challenging that it will bring the reader to the limits of her/his intellect and imagination. It means that you and your physical body are nothing but electric energy condensed from, maintained in, and transported by a crystalline grid, and not a body of solid particles such as the theories of atomism suggest. The substratum that your body and every other object in the world are made of is identical to the substratum that causes the phenomenon we perceive as light. The theory implies that the idea ‘matter’ is to be redefined from ‘solid matter’ and ‘particles’ into an electric effect of travelling wave energy within the omnipresent crystal, which provides another challenge to the human mind which is used to identify itself with a physical body made of solid matter, as it is maintaining the perception of an outer world of objects as an independently existing living environment. The crystal theory implies that this is not so and thus it is hard to be acknowledged. However, once the intellectual challenge is taken, and the barriers of acquired thought habits and traditional miss-education are overcome, the idea of the universe as a crystalline structure becomes entirely realistic and more reasonable than when it is perceived as a material phenomenon. If the reader encounters problems in understanding the implications of the theory, my advise is to give it some time for shaping the correct way of perceiving it. On my own part, once being a quite materialistic character thinking under the axiom ‘only to see is to believe’, it took some thirty years to develop this way of perceiving reality.
“The only obstacle to my understanding is my education.”
~ Albert Einstein ~
From the unknown beginnings of human life, thought, and consciousness, a vast body of ideas has been created, describing the environment we live in and its governing principles. Individuals from various cultures and races have produced concepts and theories, which were rarely in complete agreement with each other. Hence, old ideas have always been challenged. Eventually, old ideas have been replaced by new ideas in the hope that these new ideas could describe reality in a more precise way, enable humans to gain more control over the forces of nature, and possibly even to predict future behavior and yet unknown properties of the observed phenomena in their environment. Observation however, is a process of interaction between an observed phenomenon and an observer. Thus the ideas that were developed are not directly based on phenomena themselves, but via a process of interaction that alters the observed phenomenon. Observation delivers information and data via physiologic and technologic sensors to the mind of an observer. The mind of the observer then evaluates these data by comparing them with larger sets of data already acquired in the past and attempts to explain them using generalizing concepts, ideas, and theories that have already been acquired and adopted as useful tools prior to the current observation. It is however very rare that these old tools of thought and analysis are being challenged. As long as old concepts can somehow still explain new phenomena, these concepts will be consciously or unconsciously applied. There is always certain inertia in human thought, and humans tend to stick to what they have learned in the past. Only when new information streams in, that is in severe conflict with old ideas, the latter are being challenged and eventually replaced by new ideas after the conflict has been resolved.
According to yogic science the ordinary dualistic mind (manas) that separates experience into observed object, observer, and the process of observation is distorted and fragmented by mental modifier programs called vritti in Sanskrit. Vritti are attached to an observer’s mind field or consciousness (citta) as arrays of filters and modifiers, similar to filters and perturbation algorithms that one may attach to a picture in a picture editing software. Due to these artificial subprograms the original picture information gets distorted, twisted, and tainted with artificial colorings. In analogy to this, the mind does not perceive reality as it is, but modifies its impression through processes which alter and perturb the original content of perception and consciousness into a distorted copy image (citta-vritti). One vritti – out of five major categories - is called ‘right knowledge’ or ‘correct knowledge’ (pramana). Even though ‘right knowledge’ is not wrong, it is considered an obstacle and distortion to direct perception. The ‘facts’ that we have learned through our education are pramana, such as that the earth is round, all matter is energy, matter consists of atoms, there are four states of matter – solid, liquid, gaseous, and plasma, DNA holds the information for reproduction of living organisms, and so on. This knowledge, although not necessarily wrong, is considered a distortion to our perception of reality, and the entire goal and sole purpose of the practice of yoga is to remove these and other mental distortions in order to restore consciousness to its original nature, which is an unbounded and unlimited field of conscious clear light (original citta). This is done by inhibition and cessation of the habitual activity of the modifiers of consciousness (citta-vritti-nirodha), a practice that is not easy to be accomplished, since mental modifiers have a very strong hold to, control over, or stickiness to the ordinary dualistic operation of the mind.
An example for the pramana vritti is the historical debate about the earth and its movement relative to the sun. A few hundred years ago the sun was assumed to be orbiting the earth with the earth being in the center of the sun’s orbit, and possibly seen as a flat disc. By the time this view was held, it was considered ‘right knowledge’, and was backed up by ‘right perception’ (pramana), group belief, racial prejudice, and authoritative affirmation. Then this idea was challenged under much struggle by a new idea. The new idea was that the earth is round and orbiting the sun, with the sun in the center of a circle (or rather in one of the two focal points of an ellipsis). This is what people and even many scientists believe nowadays, although it is also not exactly true. Since the propagation speed of force field information is a finite velocity, due to their distance the earth always sees the sun’s position from about eight minutes before now. The field we experience is what is called a retarded field - it is history. Hence, the earth is attracted by the position of a phantom image of the sun, not the sun itself. Also, the plane of the earth’s orbital ellipsis experiences a slight rotation of a few micro-arc seconds per century due to a non-Euclidean space-time field. Scientists often think in a Euclidean way, a geometric model of space that does not account for time (and gravity). In a Euclidean system everything is described disregarding time, but timelessness is not a feature of events in nature, and therefore Euclidean geometry cannot represent physical laws accurately.
One concept that is being challenged in this paper is the concept we have of matter. Historically the concept of matter has been handed down from the forefathers of our contemporary western civilization. The phenomenon represented by the term matter was believed to be a medium or substance consisting of tiny solid particles. This traditional concept was and often still is maintained in many western civilizations. In eastern civilizations the idea of matter was not adopted and developed in this way. In western cultures it was believed that every substance can be divided into ever smaller portions, up to a smallest particle that was then called an atom (from Greek atomos). This smallest particle was assumed to be indivisible, or to say it in this way: if an amount of substance is still divisible, it is more than just one atom. There was an underlying assumption that such an indivisible smallest solid particle indeed exists, and this idea has not been challenged for a long time. This circumstance led to a rigidity of scientific development which was only overcome more than two thousand years after the early atomism as ascribed to the Greek philosopher Democrit (~ 400 B.C.E.) has been established as the predominant theory about the structure of matter. Only around the 19th and 20th century, physicists have developed a new model that described atoms as composed of even smaller particles – subatomic particles, which were then temporarily identified as smallest and indivisible constituents of matter. However, the concept of solid matter survived. The idea solid particle was just reapplied to phenomena of a smaller magnitude, but in principle the concept atomos was maintained. Still later these sub-atomic particles were also examined by scientists, and it has been found that every sub-atomic particle behaves both like a solid particle, i.e. a tiny solid ball as it was traditionally expected by atomism, as well as a fluctuation of electric and magnetic properties of empty space. This fluctuation was identified with a phenomenon called an electromagnetic wave, due to its earlier prediction in the Maxwell theory of electromagnetism. Depending on the way the phenomenon solid particle was observed, either a particle character or a wave character is the more prominent observation. However, the observation of wave-like properties in tiny solid balls was unexpected. Even a single solid particle can exhibit wave-like behavior such as interference. Also, it was unexpected to realize that natural phenomena depend on the way they are observed, since they were considered part of an outer world, taking place independent of an observer. This independence of natural phenomena from the modus of observation was then identified as a wrong assumption. Moreover, the movements of small particles could not be described in classical ways any more, such as linear movement with a precisely predictable location and velocity for any precise value in the time domain. Instead, one can only predict a certain possibility that a particle is to be observed with an approximate location and velocity. A precise prediction is not possible according to our contemporary existing theories. This phenomenon was expressed in a law of nature on its own, called the uncertainty principle. All these new observations and principles are quite contra-intuitive to the human mind. The strange behavior of matter created a severe intellectual dilemma for the scientific community around the beginning of the last century, because the historical assumption of matter as being solid was invalidated, or at least strongly challenged. Scientific "truth" had to be re-interpreted in a very drastic way. Matter had turned out to be immaterial, but not quite completely immaterial yet. The particle-wave paradox was adopted as a way of resolving the conflict, but it was another way of saying: it doesn’t make any sense, but it’s the way it is. That things don’t make sense is hard to swallow for the scrutinizing human intellect, and yet even the most intelligent people are forced to accept it. The law of cause and effect was thereby apparently abandoned and replaced by a law of chance and probability. Chance however is just an expression used for a law not recognized. Einstein expressed his unwillingness to validate the new law by saying “God does not play with dices”, and he predicted that the new physics of probability will soon be replaced by a new law recognized. To illustrate the dilemma: the inability to predict the exact location of a particle is comparable to a billiard ball that hits its target by moving straight through the surface of the billiard table, without any damage to the table. Obviously that would be an impressive party trick. It is called the tunnel effect and sub-atomic particles do such things all the time. Nowadays we also know that we can look at a particle such as a photon in a way that it appears to be very small and of subatomic dimensions. But we can also look at the same particle as having macroscopic dimensions, such as the size of a whole city or larger. We can also look at it so that it is in two locations simultaneously. Quantum entanglement and non-locality are phenomena that puzzle the minds of the greatest thinkers world-wide.
Throughout the historical process of human thought and ideation based on the naive assumption that our senses and technologic sensors deliver information about an underlying absolute reality in a precise and objective way - independent of our own involvement – western civilization has run into a conflict of thought that until now is not completely resolved. Every now and then even more puzzling phenomena, such as holographic information storage, non-locality, multi-dimensional information spaces, and entanglement are observed. Our text books with which we teach future scientists – our children - about the facts of nature are still full of dogma, unproven assumptions, and working theories that cannot account for all that we observe. By teaching them inaccurate theories we are leading them into a labyrinth of irresolvable questions, wasting thereby a lot of precious life time that could be used in more creative ways. In order to remove this misinformation we have to look at reality in a more distinct and disciplined way than before. This paper will attempt to deliver some keys to such a reformation. In eastern cultures the historical process of conceptualizing phenomena into ideas and principles is entirely different. Wise men and women of the east have held for millennia that the world as we see it with our eyes and our other senses is maya, an illusion. Therefore they argued that truth and reliable knowledge cannot be found by looking without into an external world of effects. Instead, truth must be conceived in the eye of the inner mind by stilling the intellect and silently watching the mind as it evolves and communicates information from dimensions of reality that the physical senses cannot perceive.
In Tibetan Buddhism, reality is seen under three aspects. These aspects are called the dharmakaya, the sambhogakaya, and the nirmanakaya. The dharmakaya is what I would call “the way things are”. I also call it the Absolute or Absolute Reality. The dharmakaya is reality as it is without a human intellect interpreting the sensorial data streaming from the Absolute into its biologic or technologic sensory system. Obviously, we always interpret our sense data, mold them into concepts and principles, and create separate and distinct objects that make up our experience of reality, apparently existing and taking place independently from our own presence and mental activity. This data processing is so fast and automated, that a very large portion of it is executed subconsciously. We are not aware of it. And since that is the way we habitually perceive our environment, we don’t even think that it could be possible to realize the Absolute without this internal processing and interpretation of sense data. Tibetan wisdom traditions however, hold the view that the dharmakaya – Absolute Reality - can be realized without the intellectualizing mind in a meditative state called Mahamudra. Mahamudra – also known as Satori (Zen Meditation) and Samadhi (Astanga Yoga) - is a term for a mental state free from conceptualization, the adulterations of the senses, and the interpretation of the intellect. In the state of Mahamudra a much vaster and more complete impression of reality - as it really is (swarupa) - is said to be experienced by the meditator, an experience which can potentially transcend time and space and lead to a state of omniscience, a clear telepathic and clairvoyant mode of perception of the past, present and future. In this ‘awakened’ state the observer becomes aware that the dharmakaya’s essential quality is emptiness (from Sanskrit: shunyata – zero-ness), such as the emptiness of empty space. The meditator realizes in this blissful state of consciousness (Satchitananda) that there are no separate objects the way the ‘unawakened’ observer experiences them subjectively and erroneously. However, that does not mean that this emptiness is nothing or nothingness. One might get a better hold on the term emptiness by substituting it with insubstantiality or immaterialness: there is something, but it’s not a thing or solid object. It is a mental experience. In particular, the meditator experiences that nothing in the external world exist independent from the experiencing mind. The observer contributes very much to his experience due to his own internal state of mind, his attitudes, hopes, fears, and expectations. Secondly, the sambhogakaya is that aspect of the dharmakaya in which it expresses itself, and it bestows the dharmakaya with another quality: brilliance. Brilliance is a term describing the experience of a sort of light or radiation. Some Buddhist teachers also speak of the clear light of the dharmakaya. Without this second quality brilliance it would not be possible to experience any phenomena. Space would really be nothing, and not even consciousness would arise without brilliance. To get a better grip for what is meant by brilliance, the word may be substituted by luminosity or lucidity. It describes a potential to appear as energy – or light. Finally, the Nirmanakaya is that aspect in which reality appears to the observer, or rather the observer’s mind: the objects which the mind experiences as ‘physical’ manifestations. The intellect separates an arbitrary self-identity from other observations it experiences. Those experiences it classifies as “not-self” are identified as “outer world”, while through subsequent inference the mind then assumes that there must also be an “I” experiencing this outer world. Subsequently, in a habitual modus operandi the intellect assumes that what it observes and experiences is independent from what is going on within the mental process itself. However, all phenomena are interdependent, and since we are an actively participating sub-process of the dharmakaya, how we experience reality, even when we are only ‘passively observing’ it [there is no passive observation], depends very much on the way we think, our expectations, attitudes, and the beliefs (vrittis) we consciously or subconsciously apply to our experience of reality. I call this subjective experience the Relative or Relative Reality. Physicists once thought of matter in terms of particles and solid things. Therefore, at one time they tried to discover a so-called ‘ether’ through which solid things move like a submarine moves through waters. The ether was not discovered – and it was also badly defined. In the nirmanakaya, the world of perceived objects and things, it is said that objects are not like this. They are not separate from emptiness, and one analogy for this is that material phenomena are like a drop of milk in water. They are intrinsically woven into the structure of emptiness and cannot be distinguished from it on the absolute level. The Heart Sutra says that emptiness is form, and form is emptiness (the term form representing the concept of matter, substance, and material objects). We can express this in this way: the Absolute has the quality of emptiness or insubstantiality, but the mind experiences them as substance and material objects. The sutra says that the two are identical, which means that empty space and matter are one.
TAO – the universal creative force as the unity of two polarities, which are aspects of the all encompassing Wu Chi – the great Void.
In Chinese Taoism
all phenomena of the world are seen as arising from one principle of a dual
nature called the TAO. Tao is the
unity of two forces which are seen as the only two forces responsible for all
that comes into existence, lives, and transforms into new forms and
appearances. These two forces are called Yin and Yang, the female and the male
force. One may also call it the positive and the negative force. The unity of
these two forces is keeping the entire universe in balance. They are seen as
the two modes of activity of a larger unity called the Wu Chi – the living
energy of a great Void. In the Tao Te Ching, Lao Tzu (604–511 B.C.E.) wrote
that the mother of all things is so mysterious that he is utterly unable to
name it. But in want of a proper name he called it the Tao. There are quite a
few other names for this creative energy. In
Wu Chi consists of Chi. Chi condenses to become material things. Things of necessity disintegrate and return to Wu Chi. When Chi condenses its visibility becomes effective, and physical form appears. Chi in dispersion is substance, and so it is in condensation. Every birth is a condensation, every death is dispersal. Birth is not a gain, death is not a loss … when condensed, Chi becomes a living being; when dispersed it is the substratum of change.
Zhang Ysai (1020-1077 A.D.)
There is an unmanifest, indescribable substratum of existence common or contained within all the other forms or qualities. Change in the sequence of the characteristics is the cause for the different appearances of results, consequences, or effects. By the practice of samaya [one-pointed meditation] on the changes in form, time, and characteristics comes knowledge of the past and future … past and future exist in the present reality, appearing to be different because of the different characteristics or forms… …whether these ever present characteristics or forms are manifest or subtle, they are [always] composed of the three primary elements called the three gunas [sattva, tamas, and rajas].
Thus, ancient wisdom traditions reveal principles and symbols that hint to a common origin, and it is reasonable to assume that these symbols are the remnants of a long perished ancient human civilization, or maybe even an extraterrestrial intelligence that had once visited the earth. And so we find symbols such as the Yin-Yang representing the universal mother principle of creation in Taoism. In Tantric Buddhism we find Samantabhadra symbolizing the unity of two primordial elements. There is Buddha Amithaba as a personification or deification of the unbounded light field of omnipresent wisdom, which in other cultural contexts was called the Akasha, the Ishvara, and more recently, also the morphogenetic field (Sheldrake) due to its ability to manifest conscious life forms. This ancient source culture seems to have been far advanced in knowledge than our present civilization. Its wisdom has survived clothed in relics, rituals, and wisdom scriptures whose original meaning has become unknown or too mysterious to those who practice and study them, since they often don’t practice a consistent path of mental purity and intellectual discipline which is required to understand the meaning behind the symbolism. In the Bible, the book of Genesis delivers clear yoga instructions that are invisible to people who are illiterate in yogic sciences, and thus the way they understand the text results in incomprehensible chatter. To understand the esoteric meaning behind the literal sense one has to be a suitable vessel for it. To receive the true message one has to meditate on the symbols in stillness and perfect concentration, without the incessant chatter of the inaccurately interpreting intellect. The universe does not pour its secrets into an unfit vessel which might use knowledge only for egoistic purposes. Hence, driven by passions and desires in pursuit of phantomlike external effects many practitioners in religion and science are just bathing in meaningless debates, empty phrases, and shallow rituals without understanding.
He who has the power to transcend his desires, looking within and contemplating mind, realizes that in his mind, mind is not. Looking without and contemplating form, he realizes that in form, form is not. Looking at things still more remote and contemplating matter, he realizes that in matter, matter is not.
from TAO – The
In the following
text I will attempt to explain this mystery in a way a modern scientist and
hopefully also a non-expert in this field can digest it. Likewise, I will try
to be somehow in compliance to the requirements of a modern theory. The Heart
Sutra, although correct in its conclusions, does not comply with the
requirements of modern scientific model theories. Hence, this document will
hopefully somehow make up for the deficit. I do not aspire to present a Theory of Everything, neither a
complete theory at all. This paper is rather a collection of ideas and
suggestions for new ways of looking at things - maybe a starting point for such
a TOE. And as there are still many things that demand to be addressed, it is a work in progress. Whether I am correct in all that I present
to you, I cannot tell for sure. As humans we are all subject to error from time
to time despite our best efforts. In the making of this paper I encountered
logical errors frequently, so that I had to revise the text several times.
However, I still consider the ideas presented here important and essential
elements for a TOE, and I hope that creative individuals will pick up these
ideas and turn them into beneficial applications. I am writing this paper from
a mountain retreat on an island in the
Far away, in the heavenly abode of the great god Indra, there is a wonderful net, which has been hung there by some cunning artificer in such a manner that it stretches out infinitely into all directions. In accordance with the extravagant tastes of deities, the artificer has hung a single glittering jewel at the net’s every node, and since the net itself is infinite in dimensions, the jewels are infinite in number. There hang the jewels, glittering like stars of the first magnitude, a wonderful sight to behold. If we now arbitrarily select one of these jewels for inspection, and look closely at it, we will discover that in its polished surface there are reflected all the other jewels in the net, infinite in number. Not only that, but each of these jewels reflected in this one jewel is also reflecting all the other jewels, so that the process of reflection is infinite.
~ The Avatamsaka Sutra ~
Ancient scientific schematic of space-time and particle physics.
(Picture: Google pictures)
When people think of ‘space’ they usually think of something that is utterly empty like an empty box, cabinet, or apartment. It is a spatial volume where there is nothing except for the walls that are its boundary. This reflects in our language where ‘space’ and ‘empty space’ is used like a synonym in one breath. When we say “there’s a lot of space in that box” we think of an ‘empty box’ where we can put our stuff and fill it up. However, when scientists study empty space they realize that space is not empty. There is always something noisy in it and an empty box is never really empty. Even a vacuum of the highest grade at almost absolute zero temperature shows some electromagnetic activity, and it is practically impossible to create a region of space where there is truly nothing. Thus, emptiness cannot be completely empty, but we do not exactly know what it is that makes the noise. The idea behind a substratum of change such as space-time is of course change, and therefore it cannot be Nothing. Nothing is just an idea without an existing physical representation in this world. There are quite a few theories about the vacuum and books expounding the structure and properties of Nothing. Likewise I will do this here, and I will use a well-known Buddhist sutra as my starting point: the Avatamsaka Sutra. The sutra describes a model of space, the playground of our physical reality. Although in want of mathematic formalism, the Jewel Net of Indra is not only a beautiful, but also a precise description of the structure of space. It describes space as an infinite net of infinitely many polished jewels. Every jewel in this invisible net is reflecting information about every other jewel. Thus, like in a hologram, every single node out of an infinite number of nodes reflects the information of the whole structure of the universe.
I am now mentally assuming the role of the cunning artificer who was ordered by great god Indra to build such a net and hang it into the heavens. In other words: let’s build a universe. But before I attempt to build a universe, I also want to develop a mathematic model for predicting its behavior - just to make sure it is physically sound and applicable, and not just a lofty fantasy. I will keep the math however at a minimum and put more emphasis on correct imagination. A picture says more than a thousand formulas – even if it is only a mental picture. You may ponder over the above picture of a Tibetan thanka showing an ancient rendering of the idea behind the sutra and see what your mind makes of this. The mathematicians among my readers may figure out the integrals, curls, and gradients to their liking. There are too many books that are filled with hieroglyphs but their message doesn’t come across. I want to deliver a message to my readers that can be grasped by a person of average thinking capability, not a mysterious roll of paper for a few adepts. Also, my mind does not work well in the boots of formalism. My mind thinks in pictures and principles, and when I am clear about a principle, I will try to describe it in words and also a little formalism when necessary.
Apparently the sutra describes a process of infinite reflection within a grid of reflective nodes. In physics, reflection is a phenomenon associated with electromagnetic waves, either in a vacuum, in the atmosphere, on transmission lines, or as waves propagating in mediums studied in solid state physics. To begin with our design of a universe, let us imagine an unlimited empty space with nothing in it - no matter, no light, no energy, an absolute void beyond descriptions. Then let us imagine a 3-dimensional grid of orthogonal straight lines at uniform distances in this empty space. For simplicity, for the time being let it be a uniform cubic grid. Let us assume that all the cubes outlined by such a grid have a very small but finite size. Let us call this finite size d0. d0 is the length, height, and width of the grid cubes formed by adjacent intersection points of the imagined grid lines. This distance is a fundamental property of our grid just like the distance of atomic layers in a crystal. I will just give you now the value of this distance and explain later why this should be the grid distance for a real space-time substratum.
d0 = 1.9306E-13 m (meter)
As you realize,
this is well within in the magnitudes of the subatomic phenomena in our world.
For this grid to be a useful reference system, we must now arbitrarily choose
one node of the grid as the origin 0
of a coordinate system. Then we define three perpendicular directions called x,
y, and z, which are in alignment with the edges of the cube at the origin
point. Then we put a position stamp on every node by assigning a number to each
node in each of these directions. Let these numbers be the number of nodes
Let us now place a mirror at each intersection point in the grid. What kind of mirror could that be? It must be extremely small. Such a mirror must be able to reflect light into every direction. It also must be available in infinite quantities. Moreover, it must have a rest mass of zero, since our universe is still empty and we cannot use any substance. A well-known effect of reflection in physics is the Compton Effect: when a photon of wave length l hits an electron (assumed to be at rest) the incident photon gets deflected by an angle b (beta). After being deflected the photon has a longer wave length l’ = l - Dl. It has lost some energy. The lost energy has been transferred to the electron which is now not at rest any more. In the Compton Effect the change in the photon’s energy depends solely on the deflection angle b (beta), since the wave length of the electron l0 is considered a constant. The total impulse PT = Pph + Pe of the system is preserved.
After pondering over the Compton Effect – which is a reflection of light - the idea that came to my mind with the required features of a perfect mirror was point charges. So I decided to place one point charge into each node of the grid in an alternating mode. Along any of the three directions a positive charge would follow a negative charge, and a negative charge would follow a positive one. To practically place an infinite number of electric charges into the nodes of an infinite space grid seems taking a long time, but actually it’s quite easy. Just pour a cup of negative point charges and a cup of positive charges into empty space and they will arrange naturally that way due to the Coulomb forces between them. To have a name and number for the charges let us call such a point charge zerotron and the charge magnitude be referred to as e0. The value is
e0 = 1.60217730E-19 C (Coulomb)
As you realize, the charges I am placing at each node have an electric charge in the magnitude of an electron’s electric charge. But zerotrons are not electrons or positrons per se. They are point charges, but they can appear as electrons and positrons under certain conditions. They have no physical dimensions and a rest mass of zero. Therefore they are not quite the same as electrons or positrons. They are immaterial particles. This cries for an explanation for what point charges are, and I will come back to this question later in this paper. For the time being you can imagine such mirrors as two types of electrically charged points, maybe in blue and red or black and white, but they must be points, not billiard balls. As a matter of convention, in the drawings the negative charges are in black. The positive charges are in white. The drawings show them as circles, but that must not make us think they are balls. The circle just serves as a maker for the location of a point in its center.
A representation of a space-time grid (the third dimension not shown).
Point masses are held together in a crystal grid by the Coulomb force.
The Coulomb force acts like an invisible spring between them.
To get an idea of
how strong such a crystal grid is, I give you the magnitude of the force that
holds the charges together. The Coulomb force F = e02 /
(4 p e0 d02)
amounts to 6.19E-03
After defining spatial dimensions, let us now also define time for our universe and how it will be recorded. As a time standard we will use the energy propagation speed in our grid, which will turn out to be the vacuum speed of light c0 = 2.9979E+08 m/s. Since physical clocks cannot record time with infinite precision, let us build a clock such that the time difference between each clock tick is the time interval light needs for travelling the distance d0. Its value is
t0 = d0/c0 = 6.4397E-22 s (seconds)
Obviously we cannot create a clock more precise than ±t0. We will use a clock that is built such that when it fires an initial electromagnetic pulse from one mirror node to a mirror node at distance d0 it simultaneously starts counting time at t=0. The pulse then travels from the source node to the target node. At the moment the pulse is registered at the target node, the counter advances by one tick to t=t0. The pulse is then reflected back to the source, and when it is registered there the clock again advances by one tick to t=2t0. The pulse then reflects at the source node and travels back to the target node, which advances the counter again by another tick to t= 3t0 and so on and on until we stop it. Einstein used similar clocks in his Gedankenexperiments. Having constructed a clock this way, a time stamp t is then always an integer multiple of t0. In our imagination, let us now place such identical clocks at each node of our space grid and synchronize them with each other, so that every event that might later occur at these nodes has a position as well as a time stamp. Let the timestamps t of each node be recorded in a fourth dimension such that each node bears the coordinates x, y, z, and tc0. What we have now is a Euclidean 3D vector space with an additional time dimension. Such an abstract space representation is called a Minkowski space. In practice we don’t have to actually place such clocks physically at each one of these unlimited nodes. Since we are usually only interested in events we observe, we place a clock at an observed position only when we need it there. For technical reasons, we might also use interpolation methods that can determine the correct time stamp for an observed event, or we use a clock that only approximates the above described clock such as by firing over a larger distance. Under these conditions we must use precautions as to the precision and validity of the time stamps. In an expanded version of this theory we also have to take gravity into our considerations, since gravity affects time, space, and the speed of light.
Before we hang
this jewel net into the heavenly abode, let’s have a closer look at those
jewels. In conformity with existing work in this field, I will call Indra’s
jewel net from now on zero point field
or ZPF. The legend of Atlantis also
mentions a ‘great crystal’ which this perished culture allegedly used as a
source of unlimited energy supply. As we will see later, the ZPF is just such a
great crystal. Therefore, personally I also call it the zero point crystal, or simply the
Schematic abstraction for a 3-dimensional LC circuit.
Due to linear oscillation of the charges there will be a time harmonic variation of an electric field vector in the center of the cell. It looks like a displacement current inside a capacitor made from very thin conducting plates of surface area d02. One can therefore interpret the vacuum permittivity e0 as linear capacitance density of an infinite series array of these capacitors. Hence, let us define a qubit capacitance C0. (Take note that capacitance is capital C0, while the speed of light is small caps c0). With e0 = 8.85418782E-12 F/m the qubit capacitance is given as
C0 = e0 d0 = 1.7094E-24 F (Farad)
Due to angular oscillation and rotation of the outer charges there will be a charge distribution around the center charge that mimics a current loop. This circular current causes a time-variant magnetic field. One can therefore interpret the vacuum permeability m0 as linear inductance density of an infinite solenoid. Hence, let us define a qubit inductance L0. With m0 = 1.25663706E-06 H/m the qubit inductance is given as
L0 = m0 d0 = 2.4260E-19 H (Henry)
Combining the two properties capacitance and inductance of this structure we see that it looks very much like a familiar LC oscillator circuit. In our imagination, let us now look into any direction within the crystal: we recognize infinitely long arrays of infinitely many such LC oscillator circuits. They behave like tiny loops coupled by electromagnetic forces. All these infinite arrays are virtual transmission lines. Such infinite qubit strings behave like long solenoids of thin wire. They have an inductance L0 per loop and a stray capacitance C0 between loops. The only difference to a physical transmission line is that there is no ground wire or shield such as in a coaxial cable. Thus, all these virtual transmission lines are unshielded and ungrounded. The equivalent circuit diagram for a segment of such an array looks like this:
A circuit diagram for a qubit string
Physically one might simulate such a string by lining up thin conducting rings sandwiched between thin conducting plates of the same areal size, some value d2. A signal would then be fed into the array using the left most ring and plate as injection points. At the other end of the string should be a resistor in the value of its characteristic impedance, so that the signal source sees the array as infinite.
There is a slight difference between such a qubit array and a material electronic circuit. The phase difference between the E and B field is non-zero with a material circuit, while along a string of qubits it is zero. For now let us enumerate the more classical properties of the ZPF. The Maxwell theory of electromagnetism applies to such a qubit string and yields the following field characteristics:
Schematic of an electromagnetic wave (picture: Wikipedia)
A sinusoid electromagnetic wave propagates in a direction orthogonal to electric E and magnetic B field vectors. The E vector and the B vectors are orthogonal to each other and to the energy propagation vector k. The wave is a transversal wave since the E and B vectors have no component in the direction of propagation. Typical for a vacuum wave is that the phase difference between the E and B field vectors is zero, unlike for physical transmission lines or electronic LC circuits where coils and capacitors exchange energy with a non-zero phase difference. This means that in a vacuum, when E is at maximum or minimum, also B is at maximum or minimum. Thus, they are said to be in phase. This behavior results from the mutual influence the outer charges and the inner charge have upon each other. It is sufficiently described by the Maxwell theory and therefore I will not further discuss this phenomenon. We observe this behavior as photons, and it is caused by oscillations of the zerotrons.
Qubit strings have a characteristic impedance of
Z0 = Ö (L0 / C0)
Z0 = 3.7673E+02 W (Ohm)
The value agrees well with experimental results for the vacuum impedance of our physical reality. This means that an infinite array of qubits act like a resistor of about 377 Ohm. If we could connect a voltage source to such an infinite array, it would draw a current from the battery as if a 377 Ohm resistor had been connected across its terminals. With a sinusoid signal on such a transmission line, such as a photon, we could zap all its energy with a load impedance of this value. A solar panel made from a material with this impedance characteristic would have an effective energy yield of approximately 100 percent. It would deliver power not even in daylight, but also a smaller amount during the night. The technical requirement for this is that the solar panel medium’s permittivity e and permeability m observe the relation Ö (m/e) = Z0 @ 377 Ohm.
candidate for such a material could be a DNA jelly. DNA is a micro resonator,
much like an antenna, that is built like a double helical tunnel. The inner
channel of this helix has a diameter of less than the size of an atom
(estimated from about 2.5E-10 m distance between base pairs) which makes me
think that the inner DNA channel is just wide enough to wrap around exactly one
qubit string in order to get control over its wave form. Experiments in
Channel formed by DNA base pairs.
The phase velocity (the vacuum speed of light) of the ZPF is
c0 = d0 / Ö (L0 C0)
c0 = 2.9979E+08 m/s (meter/second)
The value agrees well with experimental results for the speed of light as we know it. According to the theory of relativity this is a constant for all inertial observers, and the maximum speed energy can propagate through a standard vacuum medium.
Qubits have a circuit resonance frequency f0 of
f0 = 1 / (2 p Ö (L0 C0))
f0 = 2.4715E+20 Hz (Hertz)
Since undamped resonance can destroy the bonds between zerotrons, this has consequences for the stability of a qubit. If enough energy is pumped into the circuit, the charges can break apart. The experimental proof of this can be seen in the phenomenon of electron-positron pair creation. The experimentally observed value for the minimum energy required to create an electron-positron pair is
Eexp = 1.022 MeV
According to the theory of relativity, the total energy of an electron-positron pair is
Eep = 2 me c2 = 1.021 MeV
According to Planck’s law the energy of a photon of frequency f0 is
Eph = h f0 = 1.021 MeV
The three values are well in agreement and the theoretical frequency f0 agrees with the observed value for the minimum energy required for electron-positron pair creation.
Another observation to be made is that there are two types of qubits. One shows a net charge of (+2e0 – e0) = +e0 and the other type has a net charge (-2e0 + e0) = –e0. We can therefore speak of positive and negative qubits. The diameter of a qubit is d = 2d0 = 3.8611E-13 m. This is equivalent to the Compton Radius of the electron Rc = 3.8611E-13 m.
This observation suggests that electrons and positrons are electromagnetic standing waves with frequency fe = f0/2 reflected between adjacent qubits of like polarity. This standing wave can move through the ZPF by transfer of the standing wave’s energy to adjacent qubits of like polarity. While the electron then is a circular energy transfer via negative qubits, the positron is a circular transfer via positive qubits (see next two pictures and the derivation of the grid distance d0 further below in this text). If this can be verified, following along the lines of this idea could bring much light into understanding the nature of electrons and particles in general.
Some possible propagation paths for a ‘charged particle’ phenomenon.
RED for the negative charges, and BLUE for positive charges.
Note that closed paths are possible.
Energy moves via the four qubits Q1, Q2, Q3, and Q4 in a circle (red).
The effective diameter of an electron is therefore 4d0 = 2RC.
Thus we cannot speak of an exact location of an electron.
It is a wave within a circular area of radius RC.
The blue circles suggest a linear path of energy transfer.
Caused by such a transfer we can see “a moving electron”.
This linear transfer is caused by an applied electric field.
Since the energy moves in a circle, it is easy to comprehend that
for such a linear displacement the velocity must be v < c and can only be
increased by making the circle smaller, i.e. with a mass increase (l = S0).
All of the above suggests that:
 Zerotrons are responsible for the phenomenon of electrons and positrons.
 The ZPF crystal is an infinite grid of point charges with a typical grid dimension d0.
 A photon is electric field energy propagated via stationary qubits.
 An electron-positron pair is an effect of photon energy at the ZPF eigenfrequency f0.
 The electron and the positron are photon energy at frequency f0/2.
In addition I like to point out that the triplet and dual polarity character of qubits also reflects in the particles studied under the theory of quantum-chromodynamics. A category of observed particles called baryons is found to be composed of three quarks. Another category of particles called mesons are made of two quarks. With the proposed structure of the ZPF this seems to be a quite intuitive result. Pairs of zerotrons could account for the category of phenomena with two quarks. Triplets of zerotrons could then account for those phenomena with three quarks. And why are there no particles with four or five or more quarks? It could be because four or five or more quarks can be reduced to combinations of the numbers two and three. Electrons and positrons then could then be seen as such triplets in the described structure of physical qubits. There is one obstacle in imagining this correctly, and that is our habitual thought that there is something material moving there. I suggest to adapt the view that there isn’t any thing solid moving through the grid. All the qubits in the ZPF grid are stationary. What moves through the grid is only a package of electric field energy, and qubits are the carriers and transport medium for this energy. They interact exclusively through stimulated oscillations and resonance, not by moving through the grid. Qubits are both transmitters as well as receivers of energy, and they exchange energy among each other forever and ever because of the nature of energy – it does not rest. We say ‘they exchange photons’ to this process, but that is just the same as oscillations being stimulated between each other. The next picture illustrates this idea, and you will find some analogies to this later in the text.
Schematic illustration of an electromagnetic pulse moving through the grid.
The first qubit is flipped by 180 degrees and passes this on to its neighbor.
Energy is passed on in a domino effect, but all qubits stay at their location.
An initial pulse is injected into the grid at the left-most qubit at time t=0. The qubit then rotates by let us say 45 degrees. At time t=Dt the next qubit reacts pushed by electric and magnetic forces and likewise starts to rotate by an angle 45 degrees, while the first is already at 90 degrees. At time t=2 Dt the first qubit is at 135 degrees, the second at 90 degrees, and the third is at 45 degrees. This transfer of energy is repeated for all subsequent qubits, which results in a pulse of energy moving through the grid. In this process the qubits remain at their location. We can compare this process to a long array of domino blocks, where one domino block kicks its next neighbor into motion until the kinetic energy of the first block reaches the end of the array and knocks down also the last domino block in the array. With domino blocks we can see this easily, because it is a relatively slow process at some 0.1 m/s. In the ZPF this is done at 2.9979E08 m/s and therefore not visible to our eyes.
You can also compare this to a long chain of people holding hands. Let us say they all agreed that when one of their next neighbors shakes one of their hands, they will shake the hand of the person holding their other hand. So when one of them begins to shake their left hand, they will shake the hand of the person holding their right hand and vice versa. In this way the energy of the person starting a process ‘right hand shaking’ moves through the chain as right hand shakes. If a person starts a process ‘left hand shaking’ this energy will move through the chain as left hand shakes in the other direction. One should actually try this out and create standing wave pattern, where some people always shake both hands while others have to keep their hands still.
Before we can understand all this, I still have to clarify a few points:
do the zerotrons not annihilate each other?
do we not observe this zerotron ‘ether’ or ‘crystal grid’?
is the origin of the grid dimension d0?
do we observe a non-zero rest mass for the electron?
5. What is a point charge?
To answer these questions, let us review the foundation of Maxwell’s theory of electromagnetism, and that is Coulomb’s law: when two point charges are located at a spatial distance d, each one is experiencing a force FC and -FC respectively towards each other. The magnitudes of the forces are equal. They are proportional to the product of the charges involved and the inverse of the square of their distance. For two point charges of opposite polarity such as with zerotrons this can be written as
FC = - e02 / 4 p e0 d2
This means that opposite point charges would attract each other until they coincide at d=0. But what will happen if d=0? It is generally believed that a pair of matter/anti-matter particles annihilates itself, because that is what Coulombs law suggests. But this is not the case in general (it depends on the geometry of the situation). At distance d=0 Coulomb’s law features a singularity, since a ratio 1/d2 = 1/02 is mathematically not defined. It also means that the force at a distance approaching zero would be gaining a value that is physically not possible. Obviously, Coulomb’s law leaves a blank here for explaining the behavior of charges confined to a very small region around zero distance. We see here that math is not physics and we should not take math blindly as physics.
We know nowadays that particles are not tiny balls, but that they have wave properties. A pair of opposite charges does not self-destruct just as a hydrogen atom does not neutralize its charges by a merger of its components. The dilemma of a particle pair being expected to do something which it refused doing was encountered already about a hundred years ago, when Niels Bohr delivered his model of the hydrogen atom. The question then was: why does the negative electron on the outer shell of an H atom not radiate away its energy and spiral into the positive nucleus, despite the attractive radial forces between them? Bohr said: ‘it is forbidden to do so.’ But who forbids an electron to be attracted only up to a certain distance? Everything in the universe is governed and balanced by the natural evolution of causes and effects, not by ordinances that forbid nature to do the things she does. Thus, Bohr’s answer is not really satisfying. But Bohr provided some very good explanation what rules the electron observes in not getting closer to the nucleus than a minimum distance. He said the electron’s allowed energy values EN must follow the rule EN = (N+1/2) hf. This means that an electron must have a minimum energy of E = h/2f = mec02 as its ground state energy, and this is the reason why we observe an electron as a particle - an energy package - with a non-zero rest mass. Such a behavior also results in a positive and non-zero integer ratio N between orbital circumference S and wavelength l as N = S/l. The orbit length is always an integer number of wavelengths.
To understand the situation, let us make a Gedankenexperiment following in lines of traditional concepts for particles. Let us imagine that in an otherwise completely empty universe an electron-positron pair orbits slowly around its common center of mass like tiny planets. Let them be at some macroscopic distance d = 1 light year. Then what we observe is that the Coulomb force attracts them towards each other, however tiny this force is at that distance. In addition, since we assume they have a rest mass me > 0, a centrifugal force pushes them apart. Thus over time their angular velocity keeps on increasing while their orbital radius shrinks. They spiral into each other, slowly first but then faster and faster. They behave like a galaxy made from only two electric charges. But will they annihilate each other? They won’t do this because at some distance there is a state of equilibrium, where the attractive force is balanced by the repulsive force and the two will orbit on a circle of constant diameter, not getting any closer. Let us find the diameter of this orbit.
We have the centrifugal force as FR = me w2 d / 2.
We have the Coulomb force as FC = e02 / 4 p e0 d2.
If FR = FC
ó me w2 d / 2 = e02 / 4 p e0 d2
ó d3 = e02 / 2 p e0 me w2 // w = 2 p f
ó d3 = e02 / 8 p3 e0 me f2 // f = E/h = me c02 / h
ó d3 = e02 h2 / 8 p3 e0 me3 c04
ó d = (e02 h2 / e0 c04)1/3 / (2 p me)
The numerical result is d = 9.4379E-14 m, which is well within the magnitude of subatomic phenomena. It is also quite close to our grid dimension d0. I have used the argument that the electron’s energy is proportional to its frequency via Planck’s law E=hf. In addition I used Einstein’s mass-energy relation E=mc2. We realize from the result that there is no reason to assume that the pair will annihilate. Their wave functions do not coincide in space, since d is not zero.
What does this have to do with the grid dimension d0? In the ZPF every point charge is surrounded by neighboring point charges. The forces this neighborhood exerts keep every zerotron balanced between its neighbors in a cubic grid. Therefore, in such a grid there is no need for centrifugal forces as in the Gedankenexperiment above. The charges do not need rotation for keeping distance. The ZPF will balance itself like atoms in a crystal such as in a salt crystal. All the grid has to do is to arrange its charges in an alternating way at equal distances. Thus, in order to maintain equilibrium they have to be at a uniform distance d0 with just some minimal fluctuations allowed.
Now we know why
opposite zerotrons do not annihilate. They are kept at a distance by Coulomb
forces. This answers question 1. The next question is: why do we not observe
this ether of zerotrons? Let me explain it with an analogy. The ZPF is a
structure made of pairs of opposite charges. It is very much like a liquid made
of dipoles, like water. Water waves will therefore be a good analogy even
though their bond forces are smaller. The search for a medium for the
propagation of electromagnetic energy - the ether - has been unsuccessful so far. The idea of ether has been
abandoned due to the failure of the Michelson-Morley experiment to find a
relative drift speed between matter and the ether. However, there was an error
in the assumptions of this experiment. The error in the Michelson-Morley
experiment is that it assumed that matter is distinct from ether. The
experimenters thought that matter is solid stuff and ether is something
different of an ultra-fine texture through which matter moves like a submarine
moves through ocean waters. We should now be able to understand why this is a
wrong assumption. The submarine is not solid. It is made of water: matter is a
process of change propagating through the ZPF, but there is nothing material
moving anywhere. Remember my previous definition of energy? Energy is the
frequency of change. Thus, it is a process that moves, not a thing. A harmonic wave
in the ocean does not move a mass of water across the ocean. It only brings a
number of water molecules locally into movement, and it is this continuing
process of local movement that moves across the ocean, not the water molecules
themselves. After the local movement has stopped and the wave has passed, the
water is at the same location as it has been before. The medium water does not
move, although it appears to be. Standing in a fisher boat on the surface of
Let me illustrate this with another analogy because it is very important to understand this and get the habit of thinking “solid particle” out of one’s mind. If you have an LCD screen in front of you, and let us say a computer is programmed to animate a red ball with Mickey Mouse on it, moving from the left to the right side of the screen. What you see then is a moving red ball with Mickey Mouse. That’s what your eyes tell you and your mind responds with: ‘Oh, it’s a red ball with a Mickey Mouse, how cute.’ However, inside the computer there is no ball. There are just bits and bytes and a processor that flips them around in the memory of a graphics adapter. There is also no ‘ball’ on the screen. All that the graphics adapter does is to change electric properties of pixels in the LCD screen, which changes the light emitted by those pixels in a regular fashion. Thus the illusion of a moving ball appears. What is changing is an electric value at different pixel locations, but there is no ‘ball’ moving, as your mind tells you. The pixels stay where they are. The moving ball exists only as an idea or thought in your mind. Now if we can imagine a three-dimensional screen instead of a two-dimensional screen – similar to a holographic projection - we get the idea of what space does for creating the illusion of solid things. Analog to the ocean waves and the moving ball, matter is likewise just a mental experience stemming from stationary electric charges vibrating in space. Matter is an idea in the human mind and does not exist as solid particles. We experience it as solid because we feel the electric field involved in this process as a force. The waves that make up the skin of our hands interact with the waves of an object, and we feel this as pressure or weight. Thus we cannot dodge acknowledging that the phenomena of reality are immaterial waves. We are fooled by our mind like a cat is fooled when it watches Mickey Mouse on a screen and tries to catch it. Mickey Mouse is just in the cat’s mind.
Unable to observe an ether, we must conclude that an equivalent postulate as Einstein’s postulate for the vacuum speed of light, i.e. that c0 = 2.99697458xE8 is a constant for all observers independent of their relative velocity, can also be made for a vacuum drift velocity vz of the zerotron ‘ether’. The equivalent postulate is that the ZPF vacuum drift velocity vz = 0 m/s for all observers. There is no drift velocity. Since c0 is constant for all observers, and c0 is the constant propagation speed of light in the ZPF, it is impossible for any observer to measure a drift speed vz <> 0. This answers the third question, why we cannot observe ether. It is because all observers and everything observed are that zerotron ‘ether’, and because the speed of that ether is constant vZ = 0 m/s for all observers. Nothing moves relative to the ZPF because all matter is just energy propagating through it, an entirely immaterial process.
The fourth question concerns the origin of the grid dimension d0 and its numerical value 1.9306E-13 m. There are several ways to come to this result. A short answer is that it is one half of the Compton Radius of the electron RC = h/2pmec0 = 3.8611E-13 m. Hence
d0 = h/4pmec0
A visual explanation for the value of d0 can be given with another Gedankenexperiment. Imagine we set up an experiment where we want to create an electron/positron pair by bringing the ZPF in resonance and thus breaking the bond between zerotrons. We can do this in a setup as suggested by the next picture. A polarized gamma ray of frequency f0 is propagating through the ZPF like in the configuration shown, i.e. in the z direction. Since the frequency of the radiation is the ZPF’s resonance frequency, the qubits are in resonance and gain more and more energy. The photon’s E field pushes them rhythmically like spinning carousels until one carousel breaks apart.
The following conditions apply to this configuration:
 S0 = 2 p d0 - is the circumference of a rotating qubit
 S0 / l = 1 - is the circumference/wave length ratio
 v = l f0 / 2 - is the tangential velocity of the outer zerotrons
 E = me c02 - is Einstein’s law for an electron.
 E = h f0 / 2 - is Planck’s law for an electron.
 l = h / me c0 - is the electron’s DeBroglie wave length
Thus we have:
E = h f0 / 2 
= h v / 2 l 
= h v / 2 S0 
= h v / 4 p d0 
= me c02 
ó d0 = h v / 4 p me c02
ó d0 = h2 f0 / 8 p me2 c03 
ó d0 = h me c02 / 4 p me2 c03  and 
d0 = h / 4 p me c0
d0 = 1.9306E-13 m (meter)
What is puzzling here, and at the same time interesting is that
v = l f0 / 2
ó v = h f0 / 2 me c0 // with l = h / me c0
ó v = E/mec0 // with E = h f0
ó v = mec02/mec0 // with E = mec02
ó v = c0
This means that zerotrons, prior to transformation into an electron/positron pair are moving at the speed of light v = c0. This is expected since they are mass-less point charges. After their transformation it is however not possible for the resulting particles any more. Thus it seems that the phenomenon inertia – or mass – is due to a capture of photon energy into a qubit sequence. The radiation energy of the incident photon is been trapped or ‘frozen’ in the qubits, now appearing as the ground state mass of a ‘particle’. The energy is now the energy of a standing wave. The ground state energy propagates in a circle S0 and the wavelength/circumference ratio is 1. Obviously zerotrons are not quite the same as electrons or positrons. Therefore I regard them as point charges with zero rest mass, but they can be transformed into electrons and positrons with a non-zero ground state mass. It seems to me that this is a fundamental process in which nature creates matter.
Another way to get to this result is by considering energetic balances between atoms and their environment. H.E. Puthoff argued (in Physical Review, Volume 35, Number 10, dated May 15, 1987) that an electron/proton pair – a hydrogen atom in his discussion - does not collapse because the electron emits as much radiation caused by its radial acceleration, as it absorbs from the ZPF’s background energy. This background energy is assumed to be omnipresent in the ZPF as homogenous energy density. In the ground state, he argues, the H atom’s electron is in a state of energetic equilibrium with its environment. Puthoff did however not specify the structure of this environment, and with what (?) the electron is in energetic balance. But the result says that the electron’s environment - for whatever reason - is at the same energetic level as the electron itself, and therefore stays in a stable orbit around the nucleus. With r0 and w0 as the radius and angular frequency of the electron in the ground state, the electron’s radiated power is given by Puthoff as
Prad = e2 r02 w04 / (6 p e0 me c03)
The electron’s absorbed power from the ZPF is given as
Pabs = e2 h w03 / (12 p2 e0 me c03)
Equating these two expressions yields that
h = 2 p me w0 r02
Since these expressions for the H atom are independent of the proton mass, I leap to the conclusion that they are generally valid for a pair of charges e0 and –e0, and therefore also for a zerotron pair. Thus we find that
r02 = h / 2 p me w0 = h / 4 p2 me f, and since f = E/h = me c02 / h, it follows that
r02 = h2 / 4 p2 me2 c02, and therefore
r0 = h / 2 p me c0 = RC
Again we find here
Physical qubits, unlike their mathematical models - are oscillating LC structures and have a resonance or eigenfrequency f0 as stated before. All oscillating systems in nature, such as pendulums, springs, water waves, chemical bonds, etc, when left to themselves without external forces acting upon them are oscillating with this eigenfrequency, unless they are at rest. In the buzzing wave ocean of the ZPF there is however nothing at rest. All qubits are in motion. There is always some electromagnetic noise. Therefore, the ZPF is a sea of fluctuating electromagnetic waves. The ZPF grid is an infinite energy transmission system where energy is zapping across the universe in every direction. At this point we have to understand however, that for energy to be observed as energy it must be in some process of interaction. Without interaction we cannot speak of energy. It is then just a potential or virtual energy, such as the ground state energy of the ZPF. We cannot say anything about a sinusoidal signal on a transmission line, unless we observe the signal. Observation means that we insert a load impedance into the path of a signal. For a light beam this can be a photo receptor in the retina of our eye, or a technologic sensor such as a photo multiplier, or any other material with an impedance characteristic different from the ZPF’s characteristic impedance. A light beam is not visible, unless it interacts with some object, such as a dust or a smoke particle. Before we insert a load impedance into the path there is no way to speak of a location for a signal. It is spread over the entire transmission line and thus a non-local phenomenon, a wave along an infinite line. At the moment we observe the signal we localize its energy by choosing the insertion point for our load impedance. We put our eye ‘right there’ into the path. Only then we can speak of a location for the signal, and only then we have created an observed ‘photon’ at the location of the sensor, not before that. Thus the result of our observation depends on our choice for the location, and it also depends on our choice for the load impedance. Load impedance that is not matched to the transmission line impedance creates signal reflections on the line (which is obviously always the case) and we observe only a part of the energy of the signal being transferred to our sensors, while the reflected part alters the original wave on the line. We cannot observe reality without changing it at the same time, and therefore, in a sense, we create what we observe. Reality in its unobserved potential vacuum state can thus be regarded a structure of information states embedded in a qubit matrix of infinite dimensions. At the moment of observation we collapse this infinite matrix into one single choice. A multi-verse of potentiality is then collapsed into a 3-dimensional subset of the actual experience of observation.
Finally, a big question is: what are point charges? I am afraid I cannot tell exactly. What I can offer is just a logical plausibility for their existence and the reality of the ZPF as a crystal structure. This leads us back to the Coulomb force FC = -e02 / 4 p e0 d2 and the definition of an electric field. An electrical field vector E at a position r in space is defined by the force F a small charge would experience at a distance d = |r| from another charge, considered the reference charge located at the origin O. Thus E = -FC/e0 with -e0 being the reference charge. This definition makes only sense if there are charges. Defining E without a charge is meaningless. Thus we have to admit that whenever there is an E field in nature, there must also be charges representing it physically. To say that there is an E field in space is equivalent to saying that there exists a charge in space. This is step one in my argumentation. Step two is that Maxwell’s theory of electromagnetism predicts an electrical field that propagates through vacuum at the speed of light, which has been confirmed. Now, if there is an E field, there also must be charges representing it physically, according to its definition. Now we could argue that the E field is created by charges at the source, such as a transmitting antenna, and through some ‘mystical wind’ that field is visible even 100 km away from the antenna. This argument would have an edge if receiver and transmitter are in line of sight. However, in many applications they are not under that condition. An electric field is observable in its effects even in situations where there is no such line of sight. Therefore we must conclude that electric fields are propagated by locally present charges, such as ions in the ionosphere, or dipole molecules when a signal passes through a medium. In a vacuum there are however no ions or molecules. So where are the charges that cause the field at a particular location in empty space? My answer therefore is that the charges are the zerotron grid of the ZPF.
I could explain this again with citing the displacement current over a dielectric gap in a capacitor: if we have a non-conducting dielectric between the conducting plates of a capacitor, we accept the explanation that the displacement current is created by dipoles in the dielectric material, i.e. by electric charges. The current is real and measurable. But if the dielectric is a vacuum we don’t use such an explanation, and yet the current is real and measurable. Again, a ‘mystical wind’ does the trick? This is not logical thinking. The vacuum must be consisting of dipoles as well. We must admit that wherever there is an electromagnetic field there must be also point charges. Energy is everywhere and therefore zerotrons are everywhere. Zerotrons are the substratum of change we call space-time.
2-dimensional interference of two circular waves
Now what then are point charges? I have only a vague idea what point charges could be. All I can say is that they could be spherical waves in a medium yet to be defined. The fact that there are two opposite charges indicate a phase difference φ = p between opposite charges. Therefore, in order to give you an idea how electrons can be visualized I’ll describe the mental image I have of them. Just take it with a grain of salt. I visualize electrons as an energy flux in the shape of a donut-like surface, along which the outer charges of qubits travel and create ring shaped electric current distribution with a hole in the center. In the center then is the charge around which the energy rotates and which fixes it at a position in the ZPF grid. To imagine this, mentally rotate the above picture around a vertical axis and you get the idea for a donut shaped charge distribution in three dimensions. The donut is shaped by the brighter ring in the center of this picture.
Finally, every theory need some experimental proof. I have long pondered over an experimental proof for the described structure of space-time, and obviously something as evasive as the ZPF is hard to be proven directly. Measuring an ether drift is not possible due to its nature. We can only proof its existence by observable effects it produces. Although we have the Compton Effect and electron-positron creation by gamma rays as known effects the crystal model can explain, we are not sure if this explanation is the only possible explanation. Therefore I like to suggest the following experiment that seems to be a slight novelty. If it is true that the ZPF is a crystal of qubits, and these qubits are like tiny carousels in the way described by this theory, then this could be used to produce the desired evidence. A gamma ray gives such a qubit carousel one strong push in every round it makes - until it breaks. A gamma ray that does this trick has to have a frequency f0 = 2.4715E+20 Hz, the eigenfrequency of the ZPF. This is a well-known observation. However, a carousel can also be pushed into resonance with lower frequencies, provided the right timing and phase is used. Let us say we would not push our little carousel at frequency f0 with one push per round, but instead at a lower frequency of f = f0/3 = 8.2383E+19 Hz with three pushes per round and a phase difference φ = 2p/3 between them. In theory this could produce the same energy E = 1.022 MeV as is required to produce an electron-positron pair. But now we would use lower power x-rays instead of a gamma ray. The experimental setup should look like the next picture suggests.
Three horizontally polarized x-rays are crossing in a horizontal plane at angles 120 degrees and brought into a phase difference of likewise 120 degrees. As we expect to observe an electron-positron pair, we have to do this in a bubble chamber with a magnetic field orthogonal to the plane of the three x-rays. If such a pair is produced during the experiment the chamber should show traces like shown at the right. One can of course do this experiment with an arbitrary number of photons of even lower frequencies and smaller phase shifts, such as 90 degrees with four photons, or 45 degrees with 8 photons. It wouldn’t be a unique effect, but a unique way of creating it and a proof of concept for the structure of electrons as qubits in a crystal grid. Such a multi-beam setup may also be helpful in producing the Delbrueck Effect, i.e. photon-photon scattering.
As a final remark to this crystal theory I like to say that the rigid Euclidian grid framework that I set up during the imaginary construction of a universe is of course not necessary and most probably also inappropriate. In nature noting is rigid and rectangular in the mathematical sense. Everything is flux and change. Thus we may adopt a rigid grid as an approximation model for natural phenomena, and then make the required adaptations for describing real observed phenomena more accurately than the model does. If we accept a zerotron grid as the fundamental structure of space, we can expect that this grid is also subject to micro- and macroscopic deformations and crystallization into other unit cell geometries, which will show up as new phenomena, or explain known phenomena that are still unexplainable. A deformation of the grid, resulting in a Gaussian vector space model as outlined by the General Theory of Relativity, could explain gravity since such a deformation would alter the path of light waves, resulting in an apparent force. From the interaction of light with ‘material’ media alone we also know that many phenomena are describable just by a change of the values C0 and L0, i.e. these media have qubit oscillator circuits with a different capacitance and inductance, which also translates into different grid structures, as we know from the many possible grid geometries found in crystals. This concludes the discussion of the structure of space-time. This theory is of course a work in progress, and as time passes, there will be new facts brought to light that may prove or disprove that we are living and have our being in a universal crystal grid.
A contemporary rendering of the Jewel Net of Indra
(Picture: Google pictures)
We have seen that
the crystal theory can explain matter as processes of change propagating in an
omnipresent crystal, while the crystal itself does not change. Subjectively we
perceive change, and we are change. But the substratum of all this change is an
unchanging universe made of an indescribable substance for which we have no
better name than spirit. It creates
all things; it endows us with life and consciousness; it puts everything into a
mysterious and wonderful order beyond human comprehension. It is the light
field of creation. Every now and then there have been some mysterious
coincidences in my life that really startled me, and made me realize again and
again that we are all connected. One of these coincidences just happened today,
at the time I wrote the last part of this document just before Christmas Day
2011. I received a text message from my faithful friend Pastor Danny Urieta on
As change is unchangingly changing to cause change,
God is forever unchanging. His Light is today,
as it was yesterday, and as it will be tomorrow.
About the Author
I was born in a
Bavarian town along the river
All the years of pondering didn’t bring me closer to an answer of the question:
“What are light quanta?”
Nowadays every jerk believes to know it, but he is in error…
As you realize
from the content of this theory that I am one of the jerks Einstein mentioned.
After gymnasium and some time in civil services, I studied physics and
chemistry at a reputable Bavarian university. But what I learned there didn’t
quite make too much sense to me and I felt that I would waste precious time
there. I realized that many physicists merely perform rituals they have been
taught. But they don’t understand the meaning of their rituals, and thus they
don’t really understand nature. During this time I learned some of those
rituals as well, but not the meaning behind them. Also, the question “why?” was
too often just worth a big laugh or a meek rising of the brow, and that was
all. When contradictions are encountered
one had to be contented with a paradox or an approximation, or just give up the
pursuit of an idea and stick to performing the approved rituals in the trodden
path of the multitude. Realizing the futility of understanding nature by
performing rituals, after a period of personal struggle, I had begun to walk a
path of self-realization and mental discipline, while I continued studying
various fields of science in an autodidact way (aside from chemistry and
physics, mainly related to genetics, physiology, and psychology). I also began
acquainting myself with Zen Buddhism and I started to practice meditation while
I was living in a garage, sometimes with nothing else to eat but some potatoes.
During this time I found contact to a very inspiring local Tibetan Buddhist
group - this is where I received my Tibetan name Karma Rinchen Dawa. Along the
course of my pursuit for another twenty years – more or less - I made
experiences that opened my mind for aspects of reality that aren’t quite
scientific. However, these aspects are undeniable for me, having experienced
them first hand, and having pondered over them not just once, but again and
again over the years. Some seven years ago, during an afternoon meditation I
experienced an unmistaken spontaneous bi-location – also known as OBE and in
In the course of
the years, every now and then I was guided by benevolent individuals of eastern
origin, particularly from
My deep gratitude
also goes to Mrs. Gene Coma of
Awakened Science - The Crystal Theory of Space-Time as outlined in this document is intellectual property of its author Thomas Paul Seifert. Zerotron is a term created in the context of this theory and as a part of the theory is likewise intellectual property of the author. The pictures in this document are copyright to the author of this document, except where the origin is stated below the picture.
Commercial use of the terms Zerotron or The Crystal Theory of Space-Time, or any other content of this document is subject to approval by the author. The author grants automatic approval for any use of the content of this document or copies thereof on a not-for-sale basis, but expresses his wish that it may be accompanied by due reference or bibliographical information in the pertaining document or work.
The Crystal Theory of Space-Time is work in progress. Any of its statements and data are subject to change without further notice. The author guarantees that this theory is free from encumbrances to third parties and that it has been developed solely by the author, independent of any company, organization, group, or other individual. However, the author warrants no guarantees pertaining to the correctness, accuracy, or completeness of the statements and data given. All of its content is given in good faith, but the employment of this information and concepts in any application is considered at your own risk.
The Crystal Theory of Space-Time is a result of some thirty years of the author’s private and individual research, often under most austere conditions, while his work is still under way. If you wish to use ideas or content taken from this document for business, please consider sponsoring the development of the author’s work and/or be actively involved in any other form.
At the time of writing the author is not in a position to provide much support for further explanation of the theory or its applications. The author of this theory, due to his location, has usually no direct access to the internet. Email inquiries may therefore not always be answered, or there may be considerable delays in his response.
Awakened Science - The Chrystal Theory of Space-Time
Copyright © Thomas Paul Seifert 2011
Email: rinchendawa (at) yahoo (dot) com
Thomas Paul Seifert
(Karma Rinchen Dawa)
November 11, 2011